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Bahia sur Seine : Paris comme centre des festivités culturelles afro-brésiliennes → Accent
Bahia sur Seine : Paris comme centre des festivités culturelles afro-brésiliennes. Crédits: Canva / Cintia Cabral
Bahia sur Seine : Paris comme centre des festivités culturelles afro-brésiliennes. Crédits: Canva / Cintia Cabral

Bahia sur Seine : Paris comme centre des festivités culturelles afro-brésiliennes


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« Le Bahianais ne naît pas, il entre en scène » (Proverbe brésilien). Deux Brésiliens originaires de Bahia recréent les plus grandes festivités culturelles afro-brésiliennes à Paris, dans le but de préserver leur culture et de promouvoir un patrimoine séculaire qui leur est cher.

Sur les rives de la Seine ou en face de l’église de la Madeleine, hommes et femmes vêtus de blanc célèbrent, en chantant et en dansant, la culture afro-brésilienne. À la tête de ces manifestations culturelles de la capitale cosmopolite française, on trouve Roberto Chaves, directeur artistique du Lavage de la Madeleine, le plus grand festival culturel brésilien en France, et Tom da Bahia, fondateur de l’association Odoyá.

Alors que Roberto Chaves organise, depuis 2002, le Lavage de la Madeleine, Tom da Bahia a lancé son association en célébrant Iemanjá, la « reine des mers », aux quais de Seine en 2023. Ces deux artistes brésiliens devenus parisiens incarnent un héritage culturel singulier, qui fusionne l’Afrique, l’Europe et l’Amérique.

Robertinho Chaves, l’artiste de Santo Amaro qui illumine Paris

Né à Santo Amaro (Brésil) et élevé au sein d’une famille interreligieuse, Roberto Chaves est le fruit de l’union entre une mère protestante et un père du candomblé. En 1990, l’occasion de venir en France s’est présentée à lui grâce à la demande de Remy Kolpa Kopoul de Radio Nova, un « amoureux du Brésil » qui a fait appel au chanteur Gilberto Gil pour que ce dernier ramène un groupe d’artistes pour faire une tournée publicitaire pour Schweppes et Guarana. Il pointe :

J’étais le conseiller de Gilberto Gil, le conseiller municipal de Salvador. Il m’avait demandé si je dansais, et lorsque j’ai répondu que ‘Oui’, il m’a dit ‘Alors, tu vas venir avec moi pour faire une tournée pour Schweppes et Guarana’. À cette époque, plusieurs sociétés comme Orangina utilisaient les chansons d’été brésiliennes qui cartonnaient en France pour leurs publicités. 

C’est ainsi que Robertinho Chaves a tout laissé derrière lui au Brésil pour partir en tournée en France, où il a décidé de construire une nouvelle vie.

Afin de préserver le lien avec ses racines, Roberto a eu l’idée de recréer l’un des événements les plus emblématiques du Brésil : le Lavage de la Bonne-fin. Bien que l’artiste ait initié une première tentative en 1998 au Sacré-Cœur, ce n’est qu’à partir de juin 2002 qu’on a donné un nom à ce projet grâce à sa collaboration avec l’église du 4ᵉ arrondissement : le Lavage de la Madeleine.

Roberto Chaves (à gauche), le fondateur du Lavage de la Madeleine, avec l’acteur Vincent Cassel (au milieu) et l’animatrice Cristina Cordula (à droite), le parrain et la marraine du Lavage de la Madeleine le 4 septembre 2016. Le lavage est reconnu comme patrimoine immatériel de la France depuis 2014 par l’association Ile du Monde. Crédits : BestImage.
Roberto Chaves (à gauche), le fondateur du Lavage de la Madeleine, avec l’acteur Vincent Cassel (au milieu) et l’animatrice Cristina Cordula (à droite), le parrain et la marraine du Lavage de la Madeleine le 4 septembre 2016. Le lavage est reconnu comme patrimoine immatériel de la France depuis 2014 par l’association Ile du Monde. Crédits : BestImage.

De Wellington Dantas à Tom da Bahia : du terrain de football à la scène musicale

Tout comme Chaves, Tom da Bahia est un Bahianais né dans le candomblé. Mais si ce dernier est venu en France en tant que joueur de foot en 2005 chez l’Entente Sannois Saint-Gratien sous le nom de Wellington Dantas, Tom da Bahia explique la raison pour laquelle il a changé son nom d’artiste : « Toute l’année, je donne de nombreux concerts et je veux emmener Bahia, ma fierté, avec moi. Je veux que les gens se souviennent d’où je viens ».

Originaire d’Itabuna (Brésil), Tom da Bahia a fondé en mars 2023, en collaboration avec son épouse, l’association Odoyá dans le but de promouvoir la richesse de la culture brésilienne à travers la musique, la danse et la gastronomie. Le terme « Odoyá » est l’une des appellations dédiées à Iemanjá, souvent désignée comme « la mère des mers et de l’humanité », une figure emblématique au sein du candomblé, religion afro-brésilienne du 18ᵉ siècle.

Mary, l’épouse de Tom da Bahia, et le chanteur, dans leur restaurant éphémère qui sert des recettes afro-brésiliennes tous les dimanches à Arcueil (95), en banlieue parisienne. « J’ai grandi dans l’ancestralité de ma mère Oxum, et de mon père Oxumaré », pointe l’artiste. 17/12/2023. Crédits : Cintia Cabral.
Mary, l’épouse de Tom da Bahia, et le chanteur, dans leur restaurant éphémère qui sert des recettes afro-brésiliennes tous les dimanches à Arcueil (95), en banlieue parisienne. « J’ai grandi dans l’ancestralité de ma mère Oxum, et de mon père Oxumaré », pointe l’artiste. 17/12/2023. Crédits : Cintia Cabral.

Si Wellington Dantas et Roberto Chaves sont venus en France pour des raisons qui diffèrent, leur attachement à leur culture d’origine demeure fort. Animés par le banzo, qui évoque « la nostalgie » à Bahia, Robertinho Chaves et Tom da Bahia s’attachent à reproduire leurs traditions à plus de 8 000 km de leur terre natale. Mais si en France, l’accent est mis sur le caractère symbolique et culturel de leurs traditions, au Brésil, le culte occupe une place prépondérante.

Du Lavage de la Bonne-fin au Lavage de la Madeleine

Depuis juin 2002, Roberto Chaves organise le Lavage de la Madeleine qui s’inspire du Lavage de la Bonne-fin, un événement célébré à Bahia depuis le 18ᵉ siècle qui symbolise le syncrétisme religieux du Catholicisme et du candomblé. Avec l’aide de son frère, Pai Pote, prêtre de candomblé, et le soutien de 450 artistes issus de groupes de musique et de danse brésiliennes à Paris, Roberto Chaves organise le défilé une fois dans l’année.

Le 10 septembre dernier, le festival culturel brésilien a célébré sa 21ᵉ édition attirant, selon son fondateur, près de 60 000 participants. Selon Chaves, « la majorité de ces artistes sont des Français aux multiples origines ». Le directeur artistique souligne que « Ce festival n’est pas un carnaval, mais une manifestation culturelle qui sert de tremplin pour donner de la visibilité aux arts, à la culture et aux associations brésiliennes ».


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La fête de Iemanjá célébrée grâce à l’association Odoyá

Tom da Bahia a organisé la première fête en l’honneur de Iemanjá sur les quais de Seine le 11 juin dernier avec près de 500 participants, une initiative qui a rencontré un succès inattendu selon le musicien. Le fondateur de l’association souligne que le candomblé, la religion afro-brésilienne associée à cette fête, reste méconnu en France. Si aujourd’hui la fête d’Iemanjá est inscrite au patrimoine culturel de Salvador, et est considérée comme la deuxième fête la plus populaire au Brésil après le carnaval, elle était autrefois marginalisée. Tom da Bahia note :

Paris est une ville dans laquelle nous pouvons montrer notre identité. Mes ancêtres m’ont ouvert les portes pour que je sois ici aujourd’hui. Tout ce que je fais n’est qu’en guise de remerciement à ces derniers, et j’espère que les générations futures continueront de transmettre ce patrimoine.

Femme habillée en Iemanja pour la célébration qui s'est tenu au quai de Seine le 11 juin 2023. Crédits : Tom da Bahia/Association Odoya
Femme habillée en Iemanja pour la célébration qui s’est tenu au quai de Seine le 11 juin 2023. Crédits : Tom da Bahia/Association Odoya

Une transnationalisation des rites

Salvador de Bahia, première capitale du Brésil (1549-1763), fut le premier port d’arrivée des Noirs esclavagisés des Amériques. Selon l’IGBE, les Noirs brésiliens représentent 54% de la population, faisant du Brésil le deuxième pays avec le plus d’afro-descendants au monde après le Nigéria.

Le Lavage de la Madeleine et la fête d’Iemanja sont des traditions qui étaient autrefois réprimées au de l’autre côté de l’Atlantique, mais qui font dorénavant partie du patrimoine immatériel de la France et du Brésil.

Selon Noémie, une étudiante parisienne d’origine martiniquaise qui fréquente régulièrement les concerts de Tom da Bahia, les similitudes entre le danmyé et la capoeira, le candomblé et le quimbois ou encore entre le rhum et la cachaça, représentent des liens culturels et gastronomiques entre ses origines africaines, le Brésil et la Martinique.

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenBlockClassic::$byline_off is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-blocks.php on line 100

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenBlockClassic::$fi_off is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-blocks.php on line 101

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenBlockClassic::$uid is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-blocks.php on line 102

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenBlockClassic::$mnp is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-blocks.php on line 103

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenBlockClassic::$found_posts is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-blocks.php on line 107

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenBlockClassic::$paged is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-blocks.php on line 108

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$type is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/previews/class-zeen-preview-thumbnail.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$i is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$pid is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post_format is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$md is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$options is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$specific is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$counter is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 65

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$type is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/previews/class-zeen-preview-thumbnail.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$i is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$pid is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post_format is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$md is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$options is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$specific is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$counter is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 65

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$type is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/previews/class-zeen-preview-thumbnail.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$i is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$pid is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post_format is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$md is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$options is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$specific is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$counter is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 65

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$type is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/previews/class-zeen-preview-thumbnail.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$i is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 21

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$pid is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 22

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$post_format is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 23

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$md is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 24

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$options is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$specific is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ZeenPreviewThumbnail::$counter is deprecated in /var/www/vhosts/accent.direct/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/zeen/inc/classes/class-zeen-previews.php on line 65
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